Thicket: Seeing the Performance Experiment Forest for the Individual Run Trees|
S. Brink, M. McKinsey, D. Boehme, C. Scully-Allison, I. Lumsden, D. Hawkins, T. Burgess, V. Lama, J. Luettgau, K.E. Isaacs, M. Taufer, O. Pearce. In HPDC ’23, ACM, 2023.
Thicket is an open-source Python toolkit for Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) of multi-run performance experiments. It enables an understanding of optimal performance configuration for large-scale application codes. Most performance tools focus on a single execution (e.g., single platform, single measurement tool, single scale). Thicket bridges the gap to convenient analysis in multi-dimensional, multi-scale, multi-architecture, and multi-tool performance datasets by providing an interface for interacting with the performance data.
|Orchestration of materials science workflows for heterogeneous resources at large scale,
N. Zhou, G. Scorzelli, J. Luettgau, R.R. Kancharla, J. Kane, R. Wheeler, B. Croom, B. Newell, V. Pascucci, M. Taufer. In The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Sage, 2023.
In the era of big data, materials science workflows need to handle large-scale data distribution, storage, and computation. Any of these areas can become a performance bottleneck. We present a framework for analyzing internal material structures (e.g., cracks) to mitigate these bottlenecks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for a workflow performing synchrotron X-ray computed tomography reconstruction and segmentation of a silica-based structure. Our framework provides a cloud-based, cutting-edge solution to challenges such as growing intermediate and output data and heavy resource demands during image reconstruction and segmentation. Specifically, our framework efficiently manages data storage, scaling up compute resources on the cloud. The multi-layer software structure of our framework includes three layers. A top layer uses Jupyter notebooks and serves as the user interface. A middle layer uses Ansible for resource deployment and managing the execution environment. A low layer is dedicated to resource management and provides resource management and job scheduling on heterogeneous nodes (i.e., GPU and CPU). At the core of this layer, Kubernetes supports resource management, and Dask enables large-scale job scheduling for heterogeneous resources. The broader impact of our work is four-fold: through our framework, we hide the complexity of the cloud’s software stack to the user who otherwise is required to have expertise in cloud technologies; we manage job scheduling efficiently and in a scalable manner; we enable resource elasticity and workflow orchestration at a large scale; and we facilitate moving the study of nonporous structures, which has wide applications in engineering and scientific fields, to the cloud. While we demonstrate the capability of our framework for a specific materials science application, it can be adapted for other applications and domains because of its modular, multi-layer architecture.
Extending Hedgehog’s dataflow graphs to multi-node GPU architectures|
N. Shingde, M. Berzins, T. Blattner, W. Keyrouz, A. Bardakoff. In Workshop on Asynchronous Many-Task Systems and Applications (WAMTA23), 2023.
Asynchronous task-based systems offer the possibility of making it easier to take advantage of scalable heterogeneous architectures.
Learning Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of Complex Dynamics Using Heavy-ball Neural ODEs|
J. Baker, E. Cherkaev, A. Narayan, B. Wang. In Journal of Scientific Computing, Vol. 95, No. 14, 2023.
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) allows reduced-order modeling of complex dynamical systems at a substantial level, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in modeling the underlying dynamical systems. Advances in machine learning algorithms enable learning POD-based dynamics from data and making accurate and fast predictions of dynamical systems. This paper extends the recently proposed heavy-ball neural ODEs (HBNODEs) (Xia et al. NeurIPS, 2021] for learning data-driven reduced-order models (ROMs) in the POD context, in particular, for learning dynamics of time-varying coefficients generated by the POD analysis on training snapshots constructed by solving full-order models. HBNODE enjoys several practical advantages for learning POD-based ROMs with theoretical guarantees, including 1) HBNODE can learn long-range dependencies effectively from sequential observations, which is crucial for learning intrinsic patterns from sequential data, and 2) HBNODE is computationally efficient in both training and testing. We compare HBNODE with other popular ROMs on several complex dynamical systems, including the von Kármán Street flow, the Kurganov-Petrova-Popov equation, and the one-dimensional Euler equations for fluids modeling.
An approximate control variates approach to multifidelity distribution estimation|
Subtitled arXiv:2303.06422v1, R. Han, A. Narayan, Y. Xu. 2023.
Forward simulation-based uncertainty quantification that studies the output distribution of quantities of interest (QoI) is a crucial component for computationally robust statistics and engineering. There is a large body of literature devoted to accurately assessing statistics of QoI, and in particular, multilevel or multifidelity approaches are known to be effective, leveraging cost-accuracy tradeoffs between a given ensemble of models. However, effective algorithms that can estimate the full distribution of outputs are still under active development. In this paper, we introduce a general multifidelity framework for estimating the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of vector-valued QoI associated with a high-fidelity model under a budget constraint. Given a family of appropriate control variates obtained from lower fidelity surrogates, our framework involves identifying the most cost-effective model subset and then using it to build an approximate control variates estimator for the target CDF. We instantiate the framework by constructing a family of control variates using intermediate linear approximators and rigorously analyze the corresponding algorithm. Our analysis reveals that the resulting CDF estimator is uniformly consistent and budget-asymptotically optimal, with only mild moment and regularity assumptions. The approach provides a robust multifidelity CDF estimator that is adaptive to the available budget, does not require a priori knowledge of cross-model statistics or model hierarchy, and is applicable to general output dimensions. We demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the approach using several test examples.
The effects of passive design on indoor thermal comfort and energy savings for residential buildings in hot climates: A systematic review|
M. Hu, K. Zhang, Q. Nguyen, T. Tasdizen. In Urban Climate, Vol. 49, pp. 101466. 2023.
In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to identify, categorize, and investigate the effectiveness of passive cooling strategies (PCSs) for residential buildings. Forty-two studies published between 2000 and 2021 were reviewed; they examined the effects of PCSs on indoor temperature decrease, cooling load reduction, energy savings, and thermal comfort hour extension. In total, 30 passive strategies were identified and classified into three categories: design approach, building envelope, and passive cooling system. The review found that using various passive strategies can achieve, on average, (i) an indoor temperature decrease of 2.2 °C, (ii) a cooling load reduction of 31%, (iii) energy savings of 29%, and (v) a thermal comfort hour extension of 23%. Moreover, the five most effective passive strategies were identified as well as the differences between hot and dry climates and hot and humid climates.
A unified scalable framework for causal sweeping strategies for Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) and their temporal decompositions|
Subtitled arXiv:2302.14227v1, M. Penwarden, A.D. Jagtap, S. Zhe, G.E. Karniadakis, R.M. Kirby. 2023.
Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) as a means of solving partial differential equations (PDE) have garnered much attention in the Computational Science and Engineering (CS&E) world. However, a recent topic of interest is exploring various training (i.e., optimization) challenges – in particular, arriving at poor local minima in the optimization landscape results in a PINN approximation giving an inferior, and sometimes trivial, solution when solving forward time-dependent PDEs with no data. This problem is also found in, and in some sense more difficult, with domain decomposition strategies such as temporal decomposition using XPINNs. To address this problem, we first enable a general categorization for previous causality methods, from which we identify a gap (e.g., opportunity) in the previous approaches. We then furnish examples and explanations for different training challenges, their cause, and how they relate to information propagation and temporal decomposition. We propose a solution to fill this gap by reframing these causality concepts into a generalized information propagation framework in which any prior method or combination of methods can be described. This framework is easily modifiable via user parameters in the open-source code accompanying this paper. Our unified framework moves toward reducing the number of PINN methods to consider and the reimplementation and retuning cost for thorough comparisons rather than increasing it. Using the idea of information propagation, we propose a new stacked-decomposition method that bridges the gap between time-marching PINNs and XPINNs. We also introduce significant computational speed-ups by using transfer learning concepts to initialize subnetworks in the domain and loss tolerance-based propagation for the subdomains. Finally, we formulate a new time-sweeping collocation point algorithm inspired by the previous PINNs causality literature, which our framework can still describe, and provides a significant computational speed-up via reduced-cost collocation point segmentation. The proposed methods overcome training challenges in PINNs and XPINNs for time-dependent PDEs by respecting the causality in multiple forms and improving scalability by limiting the computation required per optimization iteration. Finally, we provide numerical results for these methods on baseline PDE problems for which unmodified PINNs and XPINNs struggle to train.
Genetic Programming Based Symbolic Regression for Analytical Solutions to Differential Equations|
Subtitled arXiv:2302.03175v1, H. Oh, R. Amici, G. Bomarito, S. Zhe, R. Kirby, J. Hochhalter. 2023.
In this paper, we present a machine learning method for the discovery of analytic solutions to differential equations. The method utilizes an inherently interpretable algorithm, genetic programming based symbolic regression. Unlike conventional accuracy measures in machine learning we demonstrate the ability to recover true analytic solutions, as opposed to a numerical approximation. The method is verified by assessing its ability to recover known analytic solutions for two separate differential equations. The developed method is compared to a conventional, purely data-driven genetic programming based symbolic regression algorithm. The reliability of successful evolution of the true solution, or an algebraic equivalent, is demonstrated.
Deep neural operators can serve as accurate surrogates for shape optimization: A case study for airfoils|
Subtitled arXiv:2302.00807v1, K. Shukla, V. Oommen, A. Peyvan, M. Penwarden, L. Bravo, A. Ghoshal, R.M. Kirby, G. Karniadakis. 2023.
Deep neural operators, such as DeepONets, have changed the paradigm in high-dimensional nonlinear regression from function regression to (differential) operator regression, paving the way for significant changes in computational engineering applications. Here, we investigate the use of DeepONets to infer flow fields around unseen airfoils with the aim of shape optimization, an important design problem in aerodynamics that typically taxes computational resources heavily. We present results which display little to no degradation in prediction accuracy, while reducing the online optimization cost by orders of magnitude. We consider NACA airfoils as a test case for our proposed approach, as their shape can be easily defined by the four-digit parametrization. We successfully optimize the constrained NACA four-digit problem with respect to maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio and validate all results by comparing them to a high-order CFD solver. We find that DeepONets have low generalization error, making them ideal for generating solutions of unseen shapes. Specifically, pressure, density, and velocity fields are accurately inferred at a fraction of a second, hence enabling the use of general objective functions beyond the maximization of the lift-to-drag ratio considered in the current work.
A Metalearning Approach for Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs): Application to Parameterized PDEs|
M. Penwarden, S. Zhe, A. Narayan, R.M. Kirby. In Journal of Computational Physics, Elsevier, 2023.
Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) as a means of discretizing partial differential equations (PDEs) are garnering much attention in the Computational Science and Engineering (CS&E) world. At least two challenges exist for PINNs at present: an understanding of accuracy and convergence characteristics with respect to tunable parameters and identification of optimization strategies that make PINNs as efficient as other computational science tools. The cost of PINNs training remains a major challenge of Physics-informed Machine Learning (PiML) – and, in fact, machine learning (ML) in general. This paper is meant to move towards addressing the latter through the study of PINNs on new tasks, for which parameterized PDEs provides a good testbed application as tasks can be easily defined in this context. Following the ML world, we introduce metalearning of PINNs with application to parameterized PDEs. By introducing metalearning and transfer learning concepts, we can greatly accelerate the PINNs optimization process. We present a survey of model-agnostic metalearning, and then discuss our model-aware metalearning applied to PINNs as well as implementation considerations and algorithmic complexity. We then test our approach on various canonical forward parameterized PDEs that have been presented in the emerging PINNs literature.
Multi-Task Classification for Improved Health Outcome Prediction Based on Environmental Indicators|
M. Alirezaei, Q.C. Nguyen, R. Whitaker, T. Tasdizen. In IEEE Access, 2022.
The influence of the neighborhood environment on health outcomes has been widely recognized in various studies. Google street view (GSV) images offer a unique and valuable tool for evaluating neighborhood environments on a large scale. By annotating the images with labels indicating the presence or absence of certain neighborhood features, we can develop classifiers that can automatically analyze and evaluate the environment. However, labeling GSV images on a large scale is a time-consuming and labor-intensive task. Considering these challenges, we propose using a multi-task classifier to improve training a classifier with limited supervised, GSV data. Our multi-task classifier utilizes readily available, inexpensive online images collected from Flicker as a related classification task. The hypothesis is that a classifier trained on multiple related tasks is less likely to overfit to small amounts of training data and generalizes better to unseen data. We leverage the power of multiple related tasks to improve the classifier’s overall performance and generalization capability. Here we show that, with the proposed learning paradigm, predicted labels for GSV test images are more accurate. Across different environment indicators, the accuracy, F1 score and balanced accuracy increase up to 6 % in the multi-task learning framework compared to its single-task learning counterpart. The enhanced accuracy of the predicted labels obtained through the multi-task classifier contributes to a more reliable and precise regression analysis determining the correlation between predicted built environment indicators and health outcomes. The R2 values calculated for different health outcomes improve by up to 4 % using multi-task learning detected indicators.
Accelerating Physics Schemes in Numerical Weather Prediction Codes and Preserving Positivity in the Physics-Dynamics coupling|
Timbwaoga Aime Judicael (TAJO) Ouermi. University of Utah, 2022.
The Materials Commons Data Repository|
G. Tarcea, B. Puchala, T. Berman, G. Scorzelli, V. Pascucci, M, Taufer, J. Allison. In 2022 IEEE 18th International Conference on e-Science (e-Science), pp. 405--406. 2022.
Repositories are increasingly used for publishing and sharing scientific data. The Materials Commons is a data repository that follows the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Inter-operable, Reusable) principles. We demonstrate the challenges with FAIR and how Materials Commons solves them. We also discuss the Nationals Science Data Fabric (NSDF) , a project that is democratizing data access, and show how Materials Commons with the NSDF software stack accelerates data access and scientific research.
NSDF-Catalog: Lightweight Indexing Service for Democratizing Data Delivering|
J. Luettgau, C.R. Kirkpatrick, G. Scorzelli, V. Pascucci, G. Tarcea, M. Taufer. 2022.
Across domains massive amounts of scientific data are generated. Because of the large volume of information, data discoverability is often hard if not impossible, especially for scientists who have not generated the data or are from other domains. As part of the NSF-funded National Science Data Fabric (NSDF) initiative, we develop a testbed to demonstrate that these boundaries to data discoverability can be overcome. In support of this effort, we identify the need for indexing large-amounts of scientific data across scientific domains. We propose NSDF-Catalog, a lightweight indexing service with minimal metadata that complements existing domain-specific and rich-metadata collections. NSDF-Catalog is designed to facilitate multiple related objectives within a flexible microservice to: (i) coordinate data movements and replication of data from origin repositories within the NSDF federation; (ii) build an inventory of existing scientific data to inform the design of next-generation cyberinfrastructure; and (iii) provide a suite of tools for discovery of datasets for cross-disciplinary research. Our service indexes scientific data at a fine-granularity at the file or object level to inform data distribution strategies and to improve the experience for users from the consumer perspective, with the goal of allowing end-to-end dataflow optimizations
Meta Learning of Interface Conditions for Multi-Domain Physics-Informed Neural Networks|
Subtitled arXiv preprint arXiv:2210.12669, S. Li, M. Penwarden, R.M. Kirby, S. Zhe. 2022.
Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) are emerging as popular mesh-free solvers for partial differential equations (PDEs). Recent extensions decompose the domain, applying different PINNs to solve the equation in each subdomain and aligning the solution at the interface of the subdomains. Hence, they can further alleviate the problem complexity, reduce the computational cost, and allow parallelization. However, the performance of the multi-domain PINNs is sensitive to the choice of the interface conditions for solution alignment. While quite a few conditions have been proposed, there is no suggestion about how to select the conditions according to specific problems. To address this gap, we propose META Learning of Interface Conditions (METALIC), a simple, efficient yet powerful approach to dynamically determine the optimal interface conditions for solving a family of parametric PDEs. Specifically, we develop two contextual multi-arm bandit models. The first one applies to the entire training procedure, and online updates a Gaussian process (GP) reward surrogate that given the PDE parameters and interface conditions predicts the solution error. The second one partitions the training into two stages, one is the stochastic phase and the other deterministic phase; we update a GP surrogate for each phase to enable different condition selections at the two stages so as to further bolster the flexibility and performance. We have shown the advantage of METALIC on four bench-mark PDE families.
Batch Multi-Fidelity Active Learning with Budget Constraints|
Subtitled arXiv:2210.12704v1, S. Li, J.M. Phillips, X. Yu, R.M. Kirby, S. Zhe. 2022.
Learning functions with high-dimensional outputs is critical in many applications, such as physical simulation and engineering design. However, collecting training examples for these applications is often costly, e.g. by running numerical solvers. The recent work (Li et al., 2022) proposes the first multi-fidelity active learning approach for high-dimensional outputs, which can acquire examples at different fidelities to reduce the cost while improving the learning performance. However, this method only queries at one pair of fidelity and input at a time, and hence has a risk to bring in strongly correlated examples to reduce the learning efficiency. In this paper, we propose Batch Multi-Fidelity Active Learning with Budget Constraints (BMFAL-BC), which can promote the diversity of training examples to improve the benefit-cost ratio, while respecting a given budget constraint for batch queries. Hence, our method can be more practically useful. Specifically, we propose a novel batch acquisition function that measures the mutual information between a batch of multi-fidelity queries and the target function, so as to penalize highly correlated queries and encourages diversity. The optimization of the batch acquisition function is challenging in that it involves a combinatorial search over many fidelities while subject to the budget constraint. To address this challenge, we develop a weighted greedy algorithm that can sequentially identify each (fidelity, input) pair, while achieving a near -approximation of the optimum. We show the advantage of our method in several computational physics and engineering applications.
Finite-Time Analysis of Adaptive Temporal Difference Learning with Deep Neural Networks|
T. Sun, D. Li, B. Wang. In 36th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2022), October, 2022.
Temporal difference (TD) learning with function approximations (linear functions or neural networks) has achieved remarkable empirical success, giving impetus to the development of finite-time analysis. As an accelerated version of TD, the adaptive TD has been proposed and proved to enjoy finite-time convergence under the linear function approximation. Existing numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of adaptive algorithms to vanilla ones. Nevertheless, the performance guarantee of adaptive TD with neural network approximation remains widely unknown. This paper establishes the finite-time analysis for the adaptive TD with multi-layer ReLU networks approximation whose samples are generated from a Markov decision process. Our established theory shows that if the width of the deep neural network is large enough, the adaptive TD using neural network approximation can find the (optimal) value function with high probabilities under the same iteration complexity as TD in general cases. Furthermore, we show that the adaptive TD using neural network approximation, with the same width and searching area, can achieve theoretical acceleration when the stochastic semigradients decay fast.
Quadrature Sampling of Parametric Models with Bi-fidelity Boosting|
Subtitled arXiv:2209.05705v1, N. Cheng, O.A. Malik, Y. Xu, S. Becker, A. Doostan, A. Narayan. 2022.
Least squares regression is a ubiquitous tool for building emulators (a.k.a. surrogate models) of problems across science and engineering for purposes such as design space exploration and uncertainty quantification. When the regression data are generated using an experimental design process (e.g., a quadrature grid) involving computationally expensive models, or when the data size is large, sketching techniques have shown promise to reduce the cost of the construction of the regression model while ensuring accuracy comparable to that of the full data. However, random sketching strategies, such as those based on leverage scores, lead to regression errors that are random and may exhibit large variability. To mitigate this issue, we present a novel boosting approach that leverages cheaper, lower-fidelity data of the problem at hand to identify the best sketch among a set of candidate sketches. This in turn specifies the sketch of the intended high-fidelity model and the associated data. We provide theoretical analyses of this bi-fidelity boosting (BFB) approach and discuss the conditions the low- and high-fidelity data must satisfy for a successful boosting. In doing so, we derive a bound on the residual norm of the BFB sketched solution relating it to its ideal, but computationally expensive, high-fidelity boosted counterpart. Empirical results on both manufactured and PDE data corroborate the theoretical analyses and illustrate the efficacy of the BFB solution in reducing the regression error, as compared to the non-boosted solution.
Fast Algorithms for Monotone Lower Subsets of Kronecker Least Squares Problems|
Subtitled arXiv:2209.05662v1, O.A. Malik, Y. Xu, N. Cheng, S. Becker, A. Doostan, A. Narayan. 2022.
Approximate solutions to large least squares problems can be computed efficiently using leverage score-based row-sketches, but directly computing the leverage scores, or sampling according to them with naive methods, still requires an expensive manipulation and processing of the design matrix. In this paper we develop efficient leverage score-based sampling methods for matrices with certain Kronecker product-type structure; in particular we consider matrices that are monotone lower column subsets of Kronecker product matrices. Our discussion is general, encompassing least squares problems on infinite domains, in which case matrices formally have infinitely many rows. We briefly survey leverage score-based sampling guarantees from the numerical linear algebra and approximation theory communities, and follow this with efficient algorithms for sampling when the design matrix has Kronecker-type structure. Our numerical examples confirm that sketches based on exact leverage score sampling for our class of structured matrices achieve superior residual compared to approximate leverage score sampling methods.
Uncertainty quantification for ecological models with random parameters|
J.R. Reimer, F.R. Adler, K.M. Golden, A. Narayan. In Ecology Letters, Wiley, pp. 1--13. 2022.
There is often considerable uncertainty in parameters in ecological models. This uncertainty can be incorporated into models by treating parameters as random variables with distributions, rather than fixed quantities. Recent advances in uncertainty quantification methods, such as polynomial chaos approaches, allow for the analysis of models with random parameters. We introduce these methods with a motivating case study of sea ice algal blooms in heterogeneous environments. We compare Monte Carlo methods with polynomial chaos techniques to help understand the dynamics of an algal bloom model with random parameters. Modelling key parameters in the algal bloom model as random variables changes the timing, intensity and overall productivity of the modelled bloom. The computational efficiency of polynomial chaos methods provides a promising avenue for the broader inclusion of parametric uncertainty in ecological models, leading to improved model predictions and synthesis between models and data.